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中國政法大學在職碩士校考英語試題DA

英語試題

公共英語部分

Put the following passage into Chinese:

1、Critics of early schooling cite research that questions whether 4-year-old children are ready to take on formal learning. Educators find that older toddlers are more likely to succeed during their school careers, whereas their younger counterparts are more likely to fail. Kindergarten children who turn five during the latter half of the year seem to be at a disadvantage when it comes to physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development. Additionally, children who are nearly six when they enter kindergarten tend to receive better grades and score higher on achievement tests throughout their schooling experience than do those who begin kindergarten having just turned five. Being bright and verbally skillful and being ready for school do not seem to be the same thing. It is easy to confuse the superficial poise and sophistication of many of today’s children with inner maturity. Indeed, evidence suggests that early schooling boomerangs: Youngsters whose parents push them to attain academic success in preschool are less creative, have more anxiety about tests, and, by the end of kindergarten, fail to maintain their initial academic advantage over their less-pressured peers.

對早期教育的批評引用了關于4歲兒童是否應準備接受正規教育的研究報告。教育工作者發現,年齡較大的幼兒更容易在他們的學業中取得成功,而年齡較小的幼兒更容易失敗。幼兒園的孩子在快到五歲時面臨的生理、心理、社交和智力發展,似乎并不順利。此外,快到六歲的孩子上幼兒園時往往會獲得更好的成績,并在學業上比那些剛滿五歲上幼兒園的孩子成績更好。天資聰慧、擁有語言表達技能與準備好上學并不一樣。人們很容易將如今大多數內心成熟兒童的表面上自信與精明混淆。事實上,有證據表明,過早教育會適得其反:那些由被父母要求在幼兒園進行應試教育學習的兒童缺乏創造力,對考試更加焦慮,并在幼兒園結束時,與那些未被要求進行應試教育學習的兒童相比,并不能在學習上保持其最初的優勢。

Many psychologists and educators remain skeptical of approaches that place 4-year-olds in a formal educational setting. They question whether environmental enrichment can significantly alter the built-in developmental timetable of a child reared in a non disadvantaged home. They do not deny, however, the value of day-care centers and nursery schools that provide a homelike environment and allow children considerable freedom to play, develop at their own pace, and evolve their social skills. But they point out that many of the things children once did in first grade are now expected of them in kindergarten, and they worry lest more and more will now be asked of 4-year-olds. These psychologists and educators believe we are driving young children too hard and thereby depriving them of their childhood.

許多心理學家和教育工作者對4歲兒童接受正規教育仍持懷疑態度。他們質疑豐富環境是否能顯著地改變貧窮家庭孩子的成長時間表。但并不否認托兒所、幼兒園的舒適環境、讓孩子自由玩耍、自由成長、提升社交能力的種種好處。但他們指出,過去孩子在小學一年級學習的知識現已在幼兒園進行學習,他們擔心越來越多的孩子被要求在4歲開始學習。這些心理學家和教育工作者認為,家長望子成龍心切,從而剝奪了孩子們的童年。

2、In country after country, talk of nonsmokers’ right is in the air. While a majority of countries have taken little or no action yet, some 30 nations have introduced legislative steps to control smoking. Many laws have been introduced in other countries to help clear the air for nonsmokers, or to cut cigarette consumption.

In some developed countries the consumption of cigarettes has become more or less stabilized. However, in many developing nations, cigarette smoking is seen as a sign of economic progress—and is even encouraged. As more tobacco companies go international, new markets are sought to gain new smokers in those countries. For example, great efforts are made by the American tobacco industry to sell cigarettes in the Middle East and North Africa—where U.S. tobacco exports increased by more than 27 percent in 1974.

Smoking is harmful to the health of people. World governments should conduct serious campaigns against it. Restrictions on cigarette advertisement, plus health warnings on packages and bans on public smoking in certain places such as theaters, cinemas and restaurants, are the most popular tools used by nations in support of nonsmokers or in curbing smoking. But world attention also is focusing on another step which will make the smoker increasingly self-conscious and uncomfortable about his habit. Great efforts should be made to inform young people especially of the dreadful consequences of taking up the habit. And cigarette price should be boosted.

In the long run, there is no doubt that everybody would be much better-off if smoking were banned altogether, but people are not ready for such drastic action.

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